Turkish Pistachi-Antep Pistachio ( Pistacia Vera) ;
Antep Pistachio is a member of Anacardiaceae( Gumwood / Terebinth / Pistacia ) families Pistacia type . And famous as fruit tree and ornamental tree .There are 11 strain. Strains classified consider as their leaf,flower,fruit types and collected four main groups ;
- Lentiscelle Zohari Group
- Pistachia Mexicana
- Pistacia Texana
- Lentiscus Zoh. Group
- Pistachia Lentiscus
- Pistachio Saportae
- Butmela Zoh. Group
- Pistachia Atlantica
- Eu-Terebinthus Zoh.Group
- Pistachia Vera
- Pistachia Khinjuk
- Pistachia Terebinthus
- Pistachia Palestina
- Pistachia Chinensis
One of the main and oldest Gene Pool (Motherland ) Southeastern Anatolia covers many hybrid of Pistacia vera & Pistacia Terebinthus & Pistacia Khinjuk and result of “ exotic fertilizations” there are many “ wild hybrids” in this territory . Which causes uniq “ taste” and “ aroma “
Pistacia Terebinthus grown up at Gaziante p, Adıyaman, Kahramanmaraş ve Şanlıurfa
Pistacia vera & Pistacia Khinjuk grown up at Siirt, Hakkari, Gaziantep, Adıyaman ve Bitlis
And “ Wild Pistacia Strains “ grown up Gaziantep & Kahramanmaraş Cities
Result of scientific studies give us four gene pool ( motherland ) idea for Pistacia Vera which they are ;
1-) Start from Esatern & Southeeastern Anatolia “ Anatolia-Iraq & Central Asia Gene Pool”
2-) Start From South& West Anatolia “ Mediterenian Gene Pool “
3-) Including China,Tibet ,India,Phlipines “ Far -East Gene Pool “
4-) Including Mexia and Texas “ Nort America Gene Pool”
Today World’s bigest producer and exporter of Antep Pistachio ( Pistacia Vera ) is Turkiye . In USA and Iran different type of Pistachio producing & exporting which is not equal to Antep Pitachio( Pistacia Vera) Taste and aroma is very different .
Turkish Pistachio ( (Antep Pistachio) (Antep Fıstığı) ( Pistacia Vera) ;
Arceological and arceobotanic studies shows that arboriculture of Antep Pistachio(Pistacia Vera) start 1660-1190 B.C in South East Anatolia by Hittites civilization . Arceological studies and reading of Hittites Clay Tablets prove that Hittites King’s dining table have this fruit . Which means that they knew this fruit and they start arboriculture of Pistacia Vera at 1660 B.C ( officaly accepted date arboriculture start from aproximately 3777 years ago )
Nutrition Facts of Antep Pistachio ( Pistachia Vera )
CHEMICAL Ingredients of Antep Pistachio ;
|mg/ 100 gr|
Vitamins In Antep Piitachio( Pistachia Vera )
100 gr Dry –Unsalted Antep Pistcahio
|Vitamin C ( Ascorbic acid)||3 mg|
|Vitamin B1 (Tiamine)||0.695 mg|
|Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)||0.234 mg|
|Pantotenic acid||0.513 mg|
|Vitamin B6||1.122 mg|
|Folic acid||51 μg|
|Vitamin A||259 IU|
|Vitamin E (α-tocopherol)||2.42 mg|
|γ- tocopherol||23.56 mg|
|Vitamin K||13.2 μg|
Nutrition data Comparison Chart of some daily consumed food
|Fe (mg)||7.30||3.4||3.1 2|
|Vitamin A (ıu)||230.0||–||30.0||80.0|
|Vitamin B1 (mg)||0.67||0.46||0.23||0.06|
|Vitamin B6 (mg)||1.40||0.90||0.90||3.30|
Fatty Acid Composition of AntepFıstığı( Turkish Pistachio) ( Pistacia Vera)
|Fatty Acid Name||%|
|Saturated Fatty Acid||14.9|
|Unsaturated Fatty Acid||84.9|
Health Benefits of Antep Pistachio ( Pistacia Vera )
Lets look what GOD gives our hand by careful observation of Nutrition Data of Pistacia.Vera and than lets talk Miracle Benefits of her.
First of all Chemical analysis of AntepPistachio (Pistacia Vera) shows that she is very rich for some special minerals /ions such as ;
Selenium is very important element for Cancer fighting enzym in human cells .Selenium is findable in all cells and to prevent cells she is very good antioxidant . Selenium is one of the main ingredients of a very important enzym which prevents human tissues from carcinogenic indepenet cells . Selenium deactivate some free radicals such as mono oxygen in human organism by this inactivation ( defusing ) strength to Cancer . So that this is important element/ mineral for human body and from many source you can intake Selenium . One of the delicius and easy way to eat 100 gr Pistacia Vera ( AntepPistachia) which contains 10 μg and it aproximatley of 28% of Daily Intake ( 35 μg)
Phosphorous( P ) ;
Phosphorous element is the second element after Calcium for bone mechanism .The ratio of Phosphorous is 1 :2 into bone . In addition to this mechanic irreplaceability of Phosphorous element there are many other imporatn functions such as ,ATP ( Adenein Tri Phosphate ) procure ( satisfy ) energy transfer . Renal Insufficeny ,some intestinal diseases result of Lack of phosphor in body . Recommed daily intake is 1000 mg and 100 gr Antep Pistachio contains 469 mg which is %46 of daily necessity
Magnesium (Mg) :
Magnesium is fourth element in body and second element in intarcellular liquid . And have very important funcitons such like synthesis of proteins , enzym siystem activation,growth of cells. Recommed daily consumption around 280-350 mg . 100 gr AntepPistachio have 109 mg Magnesium which is aproximately 28 % of daily consomption value .
Iron ( Fe ) ;
One of the main importantf fucntion of Iron is Oxygen transpor t in body by hemoglobine moleküle in blood cells .100 gr A.Pistachio have 4.09 mg Iron which is recommed daily intake amount is 15 mg and just by eaiting delicious pistacia vera you can put your %26 of Iron
Calcium ( Ca ) ;
Calcium one of the important element for human body, bones and toohts made up by Calcium and in addition to that mechanic function in body skeleton also have important functionin human nerveous system . Recommed daily intake amount is around 1200 mg and just 9% of DV comes from 100 gr Pistacia Vera
Potassium ( K ) ;
As we know Potassium have important function in cells and by Na+K+ pomps which by this ionexchange energy produced for living organism . In addition to functions Potassium also help heartbeating and many other body operations depends on potassium equilibrium . Recommended daily allowance is 3500 mg and 100 gr Pistacia vera ( AntepPistachio) contains 1007 mg which is % 29 byself
Zinc ( Zn ) ;
Zinc another important enzym activator in human body and more than 100 different enzym working regulating and activating by Zinc .Recommended daily intake around 15 mg and 15% DV correspond by 100 gr Antep Psitachio eating .
Copper helps many enzym functions and essential for human life in blood together with hemoglobine . ( myglobine is blue copper molecule vital for life ) . Help melanine pigment which gives colour of hair and skin . And also very important for collogene synthesis. Daily Copper necessity between 1,5-3 mg and Pistacio Vera supply 1,29 mg( 100 gr Antep Pistachio) which aproximately %43 of DV
Secondly lets analyze Vitamins ,Unsaturated Fatty acids ,oother treasures of Antep Pistachio;
Pistacia vera is rich for Vitamins which very important catalytic moleküles which many of them taken from our foods
Vitamin B1 ( Thiamine ) ;
Thiamine ( Vitamin B1 ) just like other Vitamin B group members have very important function for for energy prodcution of brain . Also primarily Thiamine effects to prevent diabet,nerveous system diease,sclerosis . Central nerveous system prevent by Thiamine ( Vitamin B1 ) . Recommeded daily intake is 1,4 mg and 100 gr Antep Pistachio meet 49 % of daily intake .
Vitamin B2 ( Riboflavine ) ;
This moleküle has very important key role for catayltic oxidative reactions in human body cells . Photofobia , cataract ,flue see , oily skin , egzama in some special part of body such as mouth are result of Lack of Vitamin B 2 . Anteppistachio is rich fort his moleküle and 100 gr consumtion of this delicious snack will give you 0,234 mg Riboflavine ( Vitamin B2)
Vitamin B6 is one of the daily “must” taken Vitamins group from out because body dont deposit this Vitamine and in many sources we can easily intake this Vitamin B6 . .Lack of Vitamin B6 .effect Central Nerveous System . Antep Pistachio is one of the richest fruits which 100 gr Pistacia Vera contains 1190 mg Vit.B6
VitaminB5 ( Panthothenic Acid ) ;
Lack of Panthotenic acid causes skin diesease ,body grown stop,nerveous sytstem collapse Moreover mineral Exchange and water metabolizm destroy . Pistacia Vera one of the natural Panthothenic acid deposit and 100 gr of this fruit contains aproximately 0,513 mg Vit B 5
As a result many scientific study prove that Antep Pistachio rich for Vitamin B grups molekules . Just eaten 28 gr Pistacia Vera you can meet recommeded daily requirement of 37 % Vit.B6 ,22 % Vitamin B 1 12 % Vit.B3, 8% Vitamin E , 4% Vitamin B2and Folic Acid ,3% Vitamin B 5
In addition to Vitamin B source also Tocoferol groups rich in Antep Pistachio .
Other Benefits of Antep Pistachio ( Pistacia Vera) :
If we summarize because of rich the digestive fiber helps cholesterol level and control blood sugar levels which very helpful for diabetics . This is done pythosterols in Pistacia Vera which they help lower cholesterol absorption and maintain normal cholesterol levels .
Turkish Pistachios contain significant amount of lutein and zeaxanthin which those caretenoid antioxidant reduces risk of Age-related Macular Degeneration(AMD) and chanches of blindness in older people
Antep Pistachio ( Pistachia Vera) Production;
Antep Pistachio after collecting from trees dried under the sunlight at the same garden ground
After drying operations A.Pistachio storage at special warehouses which temperature stable between 5-10 0 C and moisture most be lower than 70% .Also all hygenic conditions apply to prevent decompozition by insects and fungus and other thing .
Flake Off ( In Turkish Language KAVLAMA ) ;
This is the separation process of “red hard shell” from Antep Pistachio insede shell . Usually this operation is done after drying and before marketing/selling or processing . In USA and Iran flake off is done before drying ( after collecting of fresh fruits)
One of the Flake off steps given below ;
a-) Dried Red Shell coated Pistacia vera softened by wapor or water
b-) Softened REd Shell pulverize by fiberglas rolls or Devlips*
c-) Pulverized Red Shells separeted by sieve
d-) Separeted A.Pistachio fruits clean by using very limited amount of water very fatsly
e-) Fruits Drying very fastly by dry air .
Devlips : Two vertical Stones which turn in same axis used since ancient times
Çıtlama is a Turkish word which means Cracking of white bone shell and open fruits Mouse .
Normally in modern arboricultured garden’s Antep Pistachio fruits naturally open itself her white boned shell in %50-70 ratio . And rest must be open by Çıtlama method by human hand or machinery .Usually traditional local women workers are cracking by hand ( with special instrument shown below ) 15-20 kgs/ day but nowadays many A.Pistachio processing plant using modern Cracking machinery for Çıtlama which daily capacity is 210-410 kgs /day
Consumption of Antep Pistachio as snack is very popular all over world . And many times salty snacks choosen for some reason ( taste & easily prevent ) . So that , Antep Pistachio usually roasting by salt . This is very special procedure and companies apply their own technic for their markets . But basicly after Kavlama & Çıtlama this process apply and roasting time & temperature depends on humudity and added salt amount of A.Pistachio .Domestic market of Turkey need more salty roasted A.Pistachio but Global markets want less salty ones .
For domestic market Antep Pistachio is double packing first by PP/Nylon than Sack or Jüt
PP+Sack is 60 kgs and PP+ Jüt packing 100 kgs
For Export purpose 10 kgs Tin packing use and two Tin Packs in one cartoon ( 20 kgs/cartoon) applied .
Manufacturing Antep Pistachio Kernels ;
For this purpose Green Coloured A.Pistachio Kernels used . First of all crushed , sliced or red coloured Pistachio kernels separeted mechanically . And then Red Membrane at the green kernel seed remove at the special temperature with special conditions .
For this process kernel seeds must wash with very limited water carefully.To make this A.Pistachio kernel seeds treated with 110-120 0C vapour 5-6 minute .
After that , softened wet kernels dried at wide special sieves and than cooled with air .Cooled kernel seeds pass inside from rubber cylinders and Red Membrane of Kernels taken off from green A.Pistachio seeds .And than dry again hot air .
Antep Pistachio (Pistacia Vera );
Arboriculture of Antep Pistachio started at 1600 B.C by Hittites . Because of that ,today we have too many knowledge about this interesting tree. Iran ,USA ,Turkey ,Syria and many other countries grow this tree for economical purposes .
Arboriculture Conditions of Antep Pistachio(Pistacia Vera )depends on below parameters ;
Generaly speaking ,Antep Pistachio grown at dry , long ,hot summer and relatively cold winter conditions grown economicaly
Main factor for Antep Pistachio(Pistacia Vera) arboriculture is temperature. Because of fruit grow and ripening summer time must be long / very hot and winter time need certain period of time cold weather . But below -150C damage fruit yield .
Long term rainy and relatively cold whether effect male tree’s pollination ( fertilization) during flowering period of Pistacia Vera .So that Dry climate conditions prefered .
Pistacia vera dont need special soil for grow but to get economical result if possible deep ,sandy limestone soil( earth ) gives beter result .
Just like other trees there is three way for tree grown which they are ,naturaly , secondly from Pistacia Vera Furits ( useing as seed ) ,and by budding .